In 1506, Alexander died. Vasili III, who succeeded his father Ivan III in 1505, advanced his bid for the Polish throne, but Polish nobles chose Sigismund I the Old, who was crowned both as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. In 1507, Sigismund I sent envoys to Moscow requesting Moscow to return the territories acquired by the 1503 truce. At the same time, Khan Meñli I Giray broke off his alliance with Moscow due to its campaign against Kazan. Sigismund I received an iarlyk for the Muscovite territories of Novgorod, Pskov, Ryazan.
The war was intertwined with a rebellion by Michael Glinski, Court Marshal of Lithuania, a favorite of Alexander Jagiellon and a man of opportunity. In 1506, Alexander was succeeded by Sigismund I the Old, who did not show the same favors to Glinski. Jan Jurjewicz Zabrzezinski, Voivode of Trakai and Glinki's old political opponent, accused Glinski of treason – he alleged that Glinski poisoned Grand Duke Alexander and had ambitions of becoming king himself. Glinski then organized a rebellion, murdered Zabrzezinski (February 1508), and declared himself defender of the Orthodox faith (even though he was a Catholic of Mongol descent). His followers unsuccessfully attacked the Kaunas Castle in an attempt to liberate prisoner Ahmad, Khan of the Great Horde. Glinski then established himself in Turau and contacted Vasili III. Glinski started retreating towards Moscow and attempted to capture Minsk, Slutsk, Mstsislaw, Krychaw. He only managed to take Mazyr when his relative opened the gates. Near Orsha, he joined with Muscovite forces, but was defeated by Konstanty Ostrogski, Grand Hetman of Lithuania. This series of defeats demonstrated the rebellion, despite its claims to protect the rights of the Orthodox, was not supported by the general population and did not spread. The war eventually ended with the inconclusive 'eternal peace treaty' on October 8, 1508, which maintained the territorial accords of the 1503 truce.