The First Cheremis War or Kazan War 1552–1556, was a rebel war against the Muscovite Russia for the restoration of the Kazan Khanate.
The rebel armies mostly consisted of Tatars, Chuvashes, Cheremises, Mordvins and Udmurts. Some Nogays were also involved to the war. Independent rebel governments were formed in Chalem and Mishatamaq, the khan were invited from the Nogai Horde. Russian troops under Andrey Kurbsky and Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky opposed them.
At the peak of the rebellion Tatars controlled the most part of the former khanate. However Kazan, the former capital, stayed under Russian control. Ivan IV sent a major reinforcement to Kazan land and harshly suppressed the resistance. Deaths estimated several thousands.