The third Ottoman-Portuguese Conflicts (1558–1566) was an armed military conflict between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire in the Indian Ocean.
Portugal had been victorious in the second Ottoman–Portuguese Conflicts (1558–1563), however the Ottomans went on with a new war, given the continuous expansion of the Portuguese Empire in the Indian Ocean, which threatened the Ottoman monopoly of the spice trade through the Middle East.
At the behest of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman fleet attacked and plundered Portuguese ships, fortifications and settlements in the Indian Ocean, Asia and in East Africa. The Portuguese forces were commanded by Estêvão da Gama, as in the previous war.
By the time Suleiman died (1566), the conflict ended.
In 1558 the Portuguese established a small garrison with a Viador (Viyazoru), which they administered from their main colony in Goa. The Portuguese had a keen interest in the Maldives due to the availability of cowry shells, and ambergris, an important ingredient in perfumes, and had been approached by the formerly expelled Sultan, Hassan IX to help him regain his throne. Three attempts were repelled mainly due to Ali Rasgefaanu, who proved to be a brave and tough fighter. He became Sultan Ali VI but only for a few months as he was killed during another Portuguese attack, dying a martyr's death. The next 15 years saw the darkest period in Maldivian history, when the Portuguese tried to enforce Christianity upon the islanders. Mohamed Thakurufaanu and his two brothers from the island of Utheemu, used a form of guerilla warfare for eight long years, during which one of the brothers was caught and beheaded. Thakurufaanu sought the help of the Malabari, killed the Portuguese leader Andreas Andre, locally known as Andiri Andirin, and recaptured Malé.