Despite problems in raising funds, Charles gathered a poorly trained English force of around 20,000 men in the early summer of 1639 and marched to the vicinity of Berwick-upon-Tweed on the English side of the border. The Scottish army, of some 12,000 men, led by Leslie, were encamped a few miles away on the other side of the border near Duns. Meanwhile a series of minor engagements between Covenanters and Scottish royalist forces took place in Aberdeenshire. The first was a confrontation at the small town of Turriff called the "Raid of Turriff" at which no blood was shed. The next was the siege of Towie Barclay Castle, in which one person was shot – the very first casualty of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. This was followed by two minor engagements known as the "Trot of Turriff" and the battle of the Brig o' Dee to the south of Aberdeen. However, as neither of the main armies wanted to fight, a settlement called the Pacification of Berwick was reached in June under which the king agreed that all disputed questions should be referred to another General Assembly or to the Parliament of Scotland.