Saint-Domingue, also referred as French Santo Domingo, was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804. The French had established themselves on the western portion of the islands of Hispaniola and Tortuga by 1659. In the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, Spain formally recognized French control of Tortuga island and the western third of the island of Hispaniola.
In 1791, the slaves and some free people of color of Saint-Domingue began waging a rebellion against French authority. The rebels become reconciled to French rule following the abolition of slavery in the colony in 1793, although this alienated the island's dominant slave-holding class. France controlled the entirety of Hispaniola from 1795 to 1802, when a renewed rebellion began. The last French troops withdrew from the western portion of the island in late 1803, and in 1804 this territory declared its independence as the Republic of Haiti.