The Irish Convict Rebellion (also called the Castle Hill Rising) took place on March 4-5, 1804; it was the first rebellion in Australian history. Involving Irish convicts (for the most part, political offenders arrested in the Irish revolution of 1798), the uprising began with the rebels' seizure of the New South Wales convict station at Parramatta on March 4 and culminated in a clash between the rebels and government troops on the following day. The actual scene of this clash was Vinegar Hill (now called Rouse Hill), about 10 miles (16 kilometers) from Castle Hill.
By the night of March 4, the Sydney authorities had learned of the uprising and placed the troops of the New South Wales Corps and the settlers' Loyal Associations (two companies of militia formed in 1800) on alert. On March 5, however, only 57 troops and a few settlers were sent to face the 400 convicts who had taken up positions on Vinegar Hill. After two unsuccessful attempts to negotiate with the rebels, the troops opened fire. The convicts fled under the barrage, leaving 15 dead and many wounded. The rebellion was broken.
The rebel leader, Philip Cunningham, was captured on March 5 and immediately hanged (martial law was in effect for the area from March 5 until March 10). Later, eight other convicts were tried and hanged as well. Others were flogged. The remaining ringleaders were removed to the newly founded penal colony of Newcastle on the Hunter River.