After severe losses in Georgia during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-13, Crown Prince Abbas Mirza (1783-1833) of Persia vowed to modernize his armies. He sent Persians to England to learn Western military techniques and invited British officers to train his troops, especially newly introduced infantry. Turkish defense of rebellious tribes from Azerbaijan led to Abbas Mirza's attack into eastern Anatolia (Turkey) in 1821. Fighting occurred in the Lake Van area and culminated in Persian success at the Battle of Erzurum (1821), where Abbas Mirza's army routed a superior Turkish force. Peace did not come until the Treaty of Erzurum two years later; both sides recognized the previous borders, with no territorial changes.