Irish Catholics forced by law to pay tithes to the Church of Ireland (Anglican) banded together in the Catholic Association, founded in 1823 by Daniel O'Connelll (1775-1847), to resist the unfair tax. Their success sorely impoverished Anglican clergymen. However, their passive resistance turned violent in 1831. At Newtownforbes, Ireland, 12 who opposed the impounding of cattle were shot dead; at Carrickshook, Irish easants armed with farm tools killed 18 police; at Castlepollard, police shot 10; and at Gortroche, a clergyman order firing on officials, causing eight deaths and 13 injured persons. The government intervened, found the task of collecting to be onerous, and withdrew. Once again reasonably peaceful resistance continued in what has been called the "Tithe War" until partial relief was obtained in 1836.