John A. Murrel (1794-1844), a wealthy plantation owner in Tennessee, led an outlaw band that engaged in stealing horses and slaves in several southern states. He planned a bizarre, large-scale slave uprising, hoping to establish an underworld empire in the South (on July 4, 1835, southern slaves were to rebel in Nashville, Memphis, Natchez, New Orleans, and other citieis, and Murrel and his "army" were to take control). Authorities got word of Murrel's plans, and he was arreted. The uprising, already set to start, foundered without his leadership, though there were outbreaks in a few cities that had to be contained by force. Some 30 blacks and 15 whites were caught in Mississippi and Tennessee, found guilty of conspiracy, and hanged. Murrel himself was sent to prison for 10 years and died soon after his release.