French-Canadian political leader Louis Joseph Papineau (1786-1871) protested publicly against the British government's "unfair" treatment of French-Canadians in Lower Canada (Quebec). His speeches called for the breakup of the British-dominated governing clique, the Chateau Clique, and incited riots and fighting in Montreal. A series of armed clashes between Paineau's French-Canadian rebels and the better-trained and -equipped Canadian government militia, aided by British soldiers, took place at St. Denis, St. Charles, and St. Eustache in the Montreal area (November 1837). The rebels were easily defeated, and order was restored. Papineau escaped to the United States, then to France (1839), and later returned to Canada (1845) after receiving a general amnesty.