In sympathy with the Hungarians, on October 6, 1848, a new uprising occurred in Vienna. Three days were needed to repress it brutally; by October 31, 1848, Windischgrätz had completely suppressed the revolt. The Reichstag began to work on another representative but less liberal constitution, and soon after the emperor abdicated (December 2, 1848) in favor of his reactionary son Franz Joseph (1830-1916). The Reichstag was moved to Moravia and then dismissed. Almost a year after the first Vienna uprising, the final constitution appeared (March 4, 1849), allowing national equality, a limited form of representation, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom, and a reformed judiciary. Neither so liberal nor so democratic as the Pillersdorf document, it was received with docility, a meekness reinforced by the invitation (May 1849) of Russian troops to "protect" the Austrian Empire.