After the First Carlist War, Maria Cristina (1806-78), regent during the minority of her daughter, Queen Isabella II (1830-1904), sought to abolish the constitution of 1837 and to limit the independence of Spain's cities. Urban uprisings occurred, forcing her to accept the more liberal constitution of 1812, but the uprisings continued when the central government imposed its choice of officials at the local level. General Baldomero Espartero (1792-1879), a hero of the Carlist War, gained much popularity by refusing to heed Maria Cristina's order to quell the rebels; he was made ministerial president. Moderate reforms were enacted that so constrained Maria Cristina's power that she, along with Isabella, left the country (October 1840) to reside in France, where she fomented insurrections against Espartero, who was now the dictatorial head of government. Cristina-instigated insurrections were put down at Pamplona in October 1841, and at Barcelona in December 1842. Maria Cristina's agents aided Colonel Juan Prim y Prats (1814-1870) to stir up rebellion in the south in 1843. Espartero's regime was toppled when General Ramon Maria Narvaez (1800-1868) led opposing troops from Valencia to Madrid, the capital, which was seized. Espartero fled to England but later returned (1848). In November 1843, Isabella, though only 13, was declared of age and made head of government; Cristina was recalled; and Narvaez became president of the ministry.