Muslim tribes in Eastern or Chinese Turkistan, west of Tibet, rebelled against their Manchu (Ch'ing) overlords in 1863. They were led by Yakub Beg (1820-77), who established an independent government at Kashgar. The Russian government, which controlled the adjacent territory, feared the revolt would spread to their lands and with this pretext sent Russian troops to occupy the northern areas of Turkistan around Kuldja on the Ili River in 1871. The following year the Russians concluded a commercial treaty with Beg, thereby recognizing his sovereignty. But the Manchus did not take rebellions lightly and ordered General Tso Tsung-t'ang (1812-85) to restore order in Turkistan. The general and his army advanced very slowly over the rough terrain and by 1876 reached Kashgar. There Beg's forces were beaten in battle, and by 1877, the defeated Muslims again acknowledged China's authority over them. The Russians were reluctant to leave the territory they had occupied, but in 1881 agreed to a treaty in which most of the land reverted to China and Russia received 9 million rubles to pay for the cost of the occupation.