Isabella was in France to sign an alliance with Emperor Napoleon III (1808-73) when Admiral Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo (1821-85) issued a revolutionary proclamation at Cadiz, Spain, on September 18, 1868. Quickly uprisings occurred in Madrid and other cities; the queen returned, and exiled liberal generals reentered the country, including Juan Prim y Prats (1814-70)... At the Battle of Alcolea, near Cordoba, rebel forces led by General Francisco Serrano (1810-85) decisively defeated the Spanish royal army under General Manuel Pavia y Lacy (1814-96) on September 28, 1868. Isabella fled to France the next day and was declared deposed. While Spain boiled in disorder, a provisional government was established that did away with reactionary laws, abolished the Jesuits and other religious orders, and ensured universal suffrage and freedom of the press. Serrano and Prim, the government leaders, summoned a constituent assembly (Cortes) that promulgated a new constitution after voting to have a monarchical government.