The fiery Irish-American Fenian Brotherhood planned to liberate Ireland from British rule by involving the United States in a war with Great Briain; it hoped to do this by attacking Canada, a British dominion. On June 1, 1866, Fenian forces from Buffalo, New York, crossed the border and seized the Canadian town of Fort Eire. Canadian volunteers failed to repulse the Fenians, some 1,500 strong, until three days later, when they drove the invaders back across the Niagara River. A similar raid occurred the next week from Vermont into eastern Canada (Quebec), but it also failed. Though US authorities took action against the Fenian raiders, Fenian troubles persisted and eventually led to other unsuccessful raids into Canada from Vermont and New Hampshire on May 25-27, 1870. By the next year the Fenian scare had ended because of public pressure and a crackdown on offenders.