Boxer Rebellion in China 1899-1901

[ 1899 - 1901 ]

The conservatives then gave clandestine backing to the antiforeign and anti-Christian movement of secret societies known as Yihetuan (Society of Righteousness and Harmony). The movement has been better known in the West as the Boxers (from an earlier name--Yihequan, Righteousness and Harmony Boxers). In 1900 Boxer bands spread over the north China countryside, burning missionary facilities and killing Chinese Christians. Finally, in June 1900, the Boxers besieged the foreign concessions in Beijing and Tianjin, an action that provoked an allied relief expedition by the offended nations. The Qing declared war against the invaders, who easily crushed their opposition and occupied north China. Under the Protocol of 1901, the court was made to consent to the execution of ten high officials and the punishment of hundreds of others, expansion of the Legation Quarter, payment of war reparations, stationing of foreign troops in China, and razing of some Chinese fortifications.

In the decade that followed, the court belatedly put into effect some reform measures. These included the abolition of the moribund Confucian-based examination, educational and military modernization patterned after the model of Japan, and an experiment, if half-hearted, in constitutional and parliamentary government. The suddenness and ambitiousness of the reform effort actually hindered its success. One effect, to be felt for decades to come, was the establishment of new armies, which, in turn, gave rise to warlordism.

Weapon Name Weapon Class Weapon Class Type
Canon de 75 modele 1897 Vehicle Towed Artillery
Maxim gun Vehicle Specialty
QF 4 inch naval gun Mk I – III Vehicle Towed Artillery
Gatling gun Manportable Machine Guns
Mauser C96 Manportable Handguns
Mauser Gewehr 98 Manportable Rifles
Mannlicher M1888 Manportable Rifles
Hanyang 88 Manportable Rifles
M1870 Italian Vetterli Manportable Rifles
Murata rifle Manportable Rifles
Springfield Model 1892–99 Manportable Rifles
M1895 Lee Navy Manportable Rifles

Related Conflicts

No Releted Conflicts