Carl Peters (1856-1918), German imperial high commissioner of the district of Kilimanjaro in German East Africa (Tanzania), decided to maintain the traditional Arab administration of local justice and governance. However, many of the petty Arab officials were corrupt and unscrupulous and felt no loyalty to Germany; they took advantage of their power to exploit the black African tribes. One martial tribe, the Wahehe, who lived along the Rufiji River, rebelled against the Arabs in protest. For two years they fought the Arabs until German and mercenary troops arrived and helped defeat them. Peters came known afterward as mkono-wa-damu or "the man with blood-stained hands". In 1897 he was relieved as commissioner because of his cruel treatment of the Africans.