First Balkan War 1912-1913

[ 1912 - 1913 ]

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The First Balkan War was fought between the members of the Balkan League--Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan League was formed under Russian auspices in the spring of 1912 to take Macedonia away from Turkey, which was already involved in a war with Italy. The league was able to field a combined force of 750,000 men. Montenegro opened hostilities by declaring war on Turkey on Oct. 8, 1912, and the other members of the league followed suit 10 days later.

The Balkan allies were soon victorious. In Thrace, the Bulgarians defeated the main Ottoman forces, advancing to the outskirts of Constantinople (now Istanbul) and laying siege to Adrianople (Edirne). In Macedonia, the Serbian army achieved a great victory at Kumanovo that enabled it to capture Bitola and to join forces with the Montenegrins and enter Skopje. The Greeks, meanwhile, occupied Salonika (Thessaloníki) and advanced on Ioánnina. In Albania, the Montenegrins besieged Shkodër, and the Serbs entered Durrës.

The Turkish collapse was so complete that all parties were willing to conclude an armistice on Dec. 3, 1912. A peace conference was begun in London, but after a coup d'état by the Young Turks in Constantinople in January 1913, war with the Ottomans was resumed. Again the allies were victorious: Ioánnina fell to the Greeks and Adrianople to the Bulgarians. Under a peace treaty signed in London on May 30, 1913, the Ottoman Empire lost almost all of its remaining European territory, including all of Macedonia and Albania. Albanian independence was insisted upon by the European powers, and Macedonia was to be divided among the Balkan allies.

<table class='table table-bordered col-lg-12 col-md-12 col-sm-12 col-xs-12 margin20 row-30' border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman'; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><tbody><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">State</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Entry</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Exit</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Combat Forces</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Population</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Losses</font></td></tr><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Bulgaria</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1912</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1913</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">60000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">4100000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">32000</font></td></tr><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Greece</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1912</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1913</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">100000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">4800000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">5000</font></td></tr><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Montenegro</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1912</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1913</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">40000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">700000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">3000</font></td></tr><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Serbia</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1912</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1913</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">60000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">8000000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">15000</font></td></tr><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Turkey</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1912</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1913</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">420000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">29000000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">30000</font></td></tr></tbody></table>

Total Casualties 85000 Killed and Wounded
Casualties Killed / Wounded
Military Casualties Killed 85000 /Wounded
Civilian Casualties Killed / Wounded
Note
Belligerents Initiation Date Termination Date
Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and Balkan League 1912 / 10 / 8 1913 / 5 / 30 View
Weapon Name Weapon Class Weapon Class Type
Canon de 75 modele 1905 Schneider Vehicle Towed Artillery
Krupp 7.5 cm Model 1903 Vehicle Towed Artillery
75 mm Schneider-Danglis 06/09 Vehicle Towed Artillery
Maxim gun Vehicle Specialty
Werndl–Holub rifle Manportable Rifles
Mannlicher M1888 Manportable Rifles
Mauser-Koka Manportable Rifles
Mannlicher M1890 Carbine Manportable Rifles

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