Italy and Yugoslavia both claimed the Dalmatian port city of Fiume (Rijeka) at the end of World War I. While the dispute was being negotiated, the Italian poet and soldier Gabriele D'Annunzio (1863-1938) led a filibustering expedition against Fiume (September 12, 1919), which he believed was rightfully Italy's and which he seized and occupied (his troops wore the black shirts that were to be part of the Fascist uniform). The autocratic rule D'Annunzio established at Fiume was opposed by the Italian government and others in Europe. After Italy and Yugoslavia signed the Treaty of Rapallo (November 12, 1920), by which Fiume was to be a free state, D'Annunzio declared war on Italy, but he was forced to evacuate Fiume after Italian forces bombarded the city (December 27, 1920). Political turmoil plagued Fiume's local government until its overthrow in a Fascist coup in 1922; then Italian troops occupied the city, which eventually (1947) was awarded to Yugoslavia.