Amanullah Khan (1892-1960), emir (sovereign) of Afghanistan, had been attempting to modernize his country when opponents to his internal reforms caused a large-scale revolt in November 1928. In mid-January 1929, Amanullah abdicated in favor of his weak older brother, but an outlaw leader led a strong band to capture the Afghan capital of Kabul and proclaimed himself emir as Habibullah Ghazi (d. 1929). At Kandahar, Amanullah assembled an army and began a march on Kabul to retake the throne in the spring of 1929; he was defeated en route and fled from the country. Other claimants to the throne were also unsuccessful. General Muhammad Nadir Khan (1880-1933), an Afghan officer and Amanullah's cousin, organized an army after returning from Europe and marched against Habibullah, defeating him and taking Kabul in October 1929. Habibullah was captured and executed, and his victorious foe took the throne, renaming himself Nadir Shah. With British assistance, he instituted reforms, restored order and placated the loyal followers of Amanullah. In 1932, he established a constitutional government.