Second Greco-Turkish War 1921-1922

[ 1921 - 1922 ]

The second war occurred after World War I, when the Greeks attempted to extend their territory beyond eastern Thrace (in Europe) and the district of Smyrna (Izmir; in Anatolia). These territories had been assigned to them by the Treaty of Sèvres, Aug. 10, 1920, which was imposed upon the weak Ottoman government. In January 1921 the Greek army, despite its lack of equipment and its unprotected supply lines, launched an offensive in Anatolia against the nationalist Turks, who had defied the Ottoman government and would not recognize its treaty. Although repulsed in April, the Greeks renewed their attack in July and advanced beyond the Afyonkarahisar-Eskisehir railway line toward Ankara. The Turks, however, commanded by the nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Atatürk), defeated them at the Sakarya River (Aug. 24-Sept. 16, 1921). A year later the Turks assumed control of Smyrna (September 1922) and drove the Greeks out of Anatolia. In Greece the war was followed by a successful military coup against the monarchy.

The Treaty of Lausanne, concluded on July 24, 1923, obliged Greece to return eastern Thrace and the islands of Imbros and Tenedos to Turkey, as well as to give up its claim to Smyrna. The two belligerents also agreed to exchange their Greek and Turkish minority populations. 

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Treaty of Lausanne, (1923), final treaty concluding World War I. It was signed by representatives of Turkey (successor to the Ottoman Empire) on one side and by Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) on the other. The treaty was signed at Lausanne, Switz., on July 24, 1923, after a seven-month conference.

The treaty recognized the boundaries of the modern state of Turkey. Turkey made no claim to its former Arab provinces and recognized British possession of Cyprus and Italian possession of the Dodecanese. The Allies dropped their demands of autonomy for Turkish Kurdistan and Turkish cession of territory to Armenia, abandoned claims to spheres of influence in Turkey, and imposed no controls over Turkey's finances or armed forces. The Turkish straits between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea were declared open to all shipping.

<table class='table table-bordered col-lg-12 col-md-12 col-sm-12 col-xs-12 margin20 row-30' border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman'; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><tbody><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">State</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Entry</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Exit</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Combat Forces</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Population</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Losses</font></td></tr><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Greece</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1919</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1922</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">120000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">5100000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">30000</font></td></tr><tr><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Turkey</font></td><td width="16%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1919</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">1922</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">450000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">29000000</font></td><td width="17%"><font face="Arial" size="2">20000</font></td></tr></tbody></table>

Total Casualties 50000 Killed and Wounded
Casualties Killed / Wounded
Military Casualties Killed 50000 /Wounded
Civilian Casualties Killed / Wounded
Note
Belligerents Initiation Date Termination Date
Kingdom of Greece and Government of the Grand National Assembly 1919 1922 View
Armenians and Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 1920 1922 View
Weapon Name Weapon Class Weapon Class Type
BL 6-inch 30 cwt howitzer Vehicle Towed Artillery
Mauser Model 1889 Manportable Rifles
Mannlicher M1888 Manportable Rifles
Martini–Henry Manportable Rifles