Albania's King Zog I (1895-1961) faced insurrection in 1935 from groups of liberal reformers and Marxist-oriented Muslim radicals (the majority of the country's population were and are Muslims). A dictator who ruled autocratically to preserve Albania's feudal society, Zog put down this relatively small and poorly planned uprising easily. Surprisingly, his punishment was lenient: only a few ringleaders were executed; minor social and administrative reforms were undertaken.
Zog's success in defeating two local rebellions convinced Mussolini that the Italians had to reach a new agreement with the Albanian king. A government of young men led by Mehdi Frasheri, an enlightened Bektashi administrator, won a commitment from Italy to fulfill financial promises that Mussolini had made to Albania and to grant new loans for harbor improvements at Durrës and other projects that kept the Albanian government afloat. Soon Italians began taking positions in Albania's civil service, and Italian settlers were allowed into the country.