Kuomintang forces again attacked Communist positions in Kiangsi, in the second and third "antibandit" campaigns.
 The fourth Kuomintang "antibandit" campaign against the Kiangsi Soviet (April-June) failed. The fifth (December 1933-September 1934) defeated and almost encircled Communist forces.
Mao's prestige rose steadily after the failure of the Comintern-directed urban insurrections. In late 1931 he was able to proclaim the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic under his chairmanship in Ruijin, Jiangxi Province. The Soviet-oriented CCP Political Bureau came to Ruijin at Mao's invitation with the intent of dismantling his apparatus. But, although he had yet to gain membership in the Political Bureau, Mao dominated the proceedings.
In the early 1930s, amid continued Political Bureau opposition to his military and agrarian policies and the deadly annihilation campaigns being waged against the Red Army by Chiang Kai-shek's forces, Mao's control of the Chinese Communist movement increased.