During 1944-45, the outlawed Party of the Algerian People (Parti du Peuple Algérien -- PPA) was creating secret political cells throughout Algeria and paramilitary groups in the Kabylie and the Constantine regions. In addition, PPA supporters joined the Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty (Amis du Manifeste et de la Liberté--AML) in large numbers and attempted to promote Messali Hadj's independence concept in contrast to the more moderate autonomy advocates. Social unrest grew in the winter of 1944-45, fueled in part by a poor wheat harvest, shortages of manufactured goods, and severe unemployment. On May Day, the AML organized demonstrations in twenty-one towns across the country, with marchers demanding freedom for Messali Hadj and independence for Algeria. Violence erupted in some locations, including Algiers and Oran, leaving many wounded and three dead.