Nagaland Insurgency in India 1954-1975

[ 1954 - 1975 ]

The first and perhaps the most significant insurgency originated in Nagaland in the early 1950s; it was eventually quelled in the early 1980s through a mixture of repression and cooptation. In 1993 Nagaland experienced recrudescent violence as two ethnic groups, the Nagas and the Kukis, engaged in brutal conflict with each other. Adding to India's internal unrest in this region were the links established between the Bodo insurgents in Assam and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland, which, in turn, had links to other active insurgent groups and, reportedly, operatives in Thailand.

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Pieter Steyn, Zapuphizo: Voice of the Nagas. (Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong: May 1996). ISBN: 0 7103 0506 0

This is the first biography of Angami Zapuphizo, the great patriot leader of Nagaland in the northeastern hills of South Asia, who died in exile in England in 1990. A colourful, charismatic personality with an air of mystery about him, he was the force behind the Nagas; demand for sovereign independence in 1947, at the time that Britain transferred power to India and Pakistan. From then onwards he was a central figure in the turbulent ethnic tapestry of the region. Zapuphizo's life was the stuff of which legends are made, and to the Naga people he will always be their hero. 

The book focuses on Zapuphizo's life, his realism and his collaboration with the Japanese in World War II, and with the years of India's military suppressions of the nationalist Naga army, giving fresh insight into Zapuphizo's thoughts and actions as he strove to regain for his homeland the ultimate goal of sovereign independence. 

Although Nagaland is today a state within the Union of India, the Naga peoples have never given up their wish to be free. In the years before Britain quit the Indian subcontinent, the Nagas of the far northeast were held to exemplify an exotic and quixotic society. Radically different in culture and beliefs from the better known Hindus and Muslims of the plains, they were renowned for their spirited independence and diversity...

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After India became independent in 1947, the Naga territory initially remained a part of Assam. A strong nationalist movement, however, began seeking a political union of the Naga tribes, and extremists demanded outright secession from the Indian Union. This movement led to a number of violent incidents, and in 1955 the Indian army was called in to restore order. In 1957, after an agreement was reached between Naga leaders and the Indian government, the Naga Hills district of Assam and the Tuensang frontier division to the northeast were brought together under a single unit directly administered by the Indian government. Despite the agreement, unrest continued in the form of noncooperation with the Indian government, nonpayment of taxes, sabotage, and attacks on the army. A further accord reached at the Naga People's Convention meeting of July 1960 resolved that Nagaland should become a constituent state of the Indian Union. Nagaland achieved statehood in 1963, and a democratically elected government took office in 1964.

Rebel activity continued, however, increasingly assuming the form of banditry and often motivated more by tribal rivalry and personal vendetta than by political aspiration. Ceasefires and negotiations did little to stop the insurgency, and in March 1975 direct presidential rule was imposed on the state. Although leaders of the underground agreed in November 1975 to lay down their arms and accept the Indian Constitution, a small group of hard-core extremists continued to agitate for Naga independence.

<p> </p><table class='table table-bordered col-lg-12 col-md-12 col-sm-12 col-xs-12 margin20 row-30' width="100%" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"> <colgroup><col width="41*"> <col width="41*"> <col width="44*"> <col width="44*"> <col width="44*"> <col width="44*"> </colgroup><tbody><tr> <td width="16%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">State</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="16%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">Entry</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">Exit</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">Combat Forces</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">Population</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">Losses</font></font></font></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="16%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">India</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="16%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">1954</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">1987</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">1000000</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">520000000</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">30000</font></font></font></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="16%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">Nagaland</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="16%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">1954</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">1987</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">25000</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">100000</font></font></font></p> </td> <td width="17%" style="border: none; padding: 0cm"> <p><font color="#000000"><font face="Arial"><font style="font-size: 10pt">4000</font></font></font></p> </td> </tr> </tbody></table>

Total Casualties 34000 Killed and Wounded
Casualties Killed / Wounded
Military Casualties Killed 34000 /Wounded
Civilian Casualties Killed / Wounded
Note
Belligerents Initiation Date Termination Date
India and Nagaland 1954 1975 View

Related Conflicts

No Releted Conflicts