Congo (later Zaire) became an independent nation (June 30) and immediately plunged into a series of related civil wars (1960-67). The first of these came only 11 days after independence: Moise Tshombe, supported by Belgian troops and industrialists, announced the secession of Katanga (July 11); President Joseph Kasavubu asked for a United Nations peacekeeping force, which was approved by the Security Council (July 14) and would stay until 1964.
 United Nations peacekeeping forces in Katanga were defeated by Katanga forces, bolstered by South African and European mercenaries (September). Greatly reinforced UN forces numbering more than 6,000 defeated the Katanga army, taking Elizabethville (December).
 Further reinforced United Nations forces in Katanga decisively defeated the remaining Katanga forces (December 15, 1963-January 15, 1964); Moise Tshombe fled into exile, ending the Katanga phase of the civil war.
 In the Congo (Zaire), remaining United Nations peacekeeping forces left (June 30).