The Rann of Kutch territory was one of several areas left in dispute after the partition of India. The Rann had no real economic value; the conflict seemed to be a military power struggle, with elements of prestige at stake.
The dispute began in January 1965 with protests by both countries over intrusions of patrols on claimed territory. A meeting of deputy inspector generals took place on February 15, 1965, but nothing was resolved. At the end of March, Indian forces began large-scale maneuvers in the Rann, and the first clash occurred on March 20, 1965. Pakistan requested a cease-fire and negotiations. Indian and Pakistani representatives met on April 12 and 14, but fighting soon resumed.
Pakistan then launched a major offensive from April 24th through April 29, 1965. On May 3, 1965, Pakistan stated that she was ready to put the dispute before the International Court of Justice. Great Britain made several proposals for a cease-fire during May. The two sides finally accepted the British proposals, and representatives met in Great Britain on June 17, 1965. An agreement was reached on June 30, 1965, which included the withdrawal of troops (from all disputed territories except the Kashmir cease-fire line), and an immediate cease-fire.
Low-level border skirmishing led to a divisional-strength Pakistani armored attack across the Kashmir cease-fire line (September 1) and the bombing of Indian airfields. India contained the Pakistani thrust and attacked in the Punjab (September 6). A United Nations-mediated cease-fire (September 27) ended hostilities.
Full Indian withdrawal from Pakistan came after the Indian-Pakistani Tashkent Agreement (January 19).