Internal opposition to Qaddafi came from elements of the middle class who opposed his economic reforms and from students and intellectuals who criticized his ideology. He also incurred the anger of the Islamic community for his unorthodox interpretations of the doctrine and traditions of Islam. The most serious challenges to Qaddafi's rule came from the armed forces, especially the officers' corps, and from the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). In 1975, Minister of Planning and RCC member Major Umar Mihayshi and about thirty army officers attempted a coup after disagreements over political economic policies. The failure of the coup led to the flight of Mihayshi and part of the country's technocratic elite. In a move that signaled a new intolerance of dissent, the regime executed twenty-two of the accused army officers in 1977, the first such punishment in more than twenty years.