On April 12, 1980, President William R. Tolbert, Jr. (1913-80) was killed in a coup led by Master Sergeant (later General) Samuel K. Doe (1951?-90), who became head of state and chairman of the People's Redemption Council (PRC). The PRC promised a new constitution, which became effective in 1986, and a return to civilian rule. Elections were held in 1985 with the participation of several parties but were widely criticized as fraudulent. Doe was inaugurated as the first president of the Second Republic in January 1986. His rule ended in 1990 after civil war--primarily between the Krahn and the Gio and Mano peoples--erupted.