The Chiapas conflict (Spanish: Conflicto de Chiapas) refers to the 1994 Zapatista Uprising and its aftermath, as well as the general tensions between the indigenous peoples and subsistence farmers in the Mexican state of Chiapas, having its roots in the 1970s and 1980s.
The Zapatista uprising started in January 1994, lasting for less than two weeks, before being crushed by the government. Negotiations between the government and Zapatistas allowed agreements to be signed as part of peace negotiations, but these agreements were not complied with in the following years and the peace process stagnated. This resulted in an increasing division between people and communities with ties to the government and communities that sympathized with the Zapatistas. Social tensions, armed conflict and para-military incidents increased, culminating in the killing of 45 people in the village of Acteal in 1997 by para-militaries. The rebel activity however continued on a low level since and violence erupted on multiple occasions, between the Zapatista supporters, the anti-Zapatista militias and the government. The last related incident occurred in 2014, with a Zapatista-related teacher killed and 15 more wounded in Chiapas.
The Chiapas conflict is intricately linked with counter-insurgency, low intensity conflict, fourth-generation warfare, and divide and rule.