A longstanding territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru erupted in fighting on January 26, 1995, in the remote, rugged jungle mountains of the Cordillera del Condor, where a stretch of border had never been clearly marked and where deposits of gold, uranium, and oil supposedly lay. Peru claimed that the approximately 1,000-mile border between the two countries had been set by the 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which had confirmed its victory over Ecuador in a 10-day war in 1941 over territory. But Ecuador declared the protocol null in 1960, before the last 48 miles of the border had been marked. Vowing to enforce Peru's claim to the 48-mile stretch, President Alberto Fujimori (1938-) sent troops and warplanes into the region (between the Santiago and Zamora rivers); then Ecuador's president Sixto Duran Ballen (1922-) attempted to negotiate a peace. Each side accused the other of being the aggressor and deployed naval ships along their coasts. Finally a cease-fire and truce took effect on March 1, 1995, after tense peace talks, calling for demilitarization of the disputed jungle border. Peru reported losing several warplanes and almost 50 soldiers; Ecuador's official toll was about 30 dead and 300 wounded, but the casualties on both sides most likely were greater. On October 26, 1998, the two countries signed a peace treaty defining the 48-mile stretch of border, creating a committee to resolve boundary issues peacefully, and setting down terms for bilateral trade and navigation rights.