Kurdish forces in northern Iraq revived their war of independence, taking Kirkuk... [the insurrection was] crushed by Iraqi forces. Kurdish forces also struck out of northern Iraq into Turkey, generating cross-border responses by Turkish forces.
 Turkish border forces and Iraq-based Kurdish forces repeatedly clashed.
 Turkish forces numbering 40,000 mounted a largely unsuccessful spring offensive into Northern Iraq (April), aimed at Kurdistan Workers' Party (KKK) insurgents waging a guerrilla war into Turkey from cross-border bases. An equally large Turkish cross-border offensive (March 1995) would meet with little success.