Uprisings in Iraq 1991

[ 1991 ]

The 1991 uprisings in Iraq were a series of popular rebellions in northern and southern Iraq in March and April 1991 after the Gulf War. The mostly uncoordinated insurgency, often referred to as the Sha'aban Intifada among Arabs and as the National Uprising among Kurds, was fueled by the perception that then Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was responsible for systemic social repression and had become vulnerable to regime change. This perception of weakness was largely the result of the outcome of two prior wars: the Iran–Iraq War and the invasion of Kuwait, both of which occurred within a single decade and devastated the economy and population of Iraq.

Within the first two weeks, most of Iraq's cities and provinces fell to rebel forces. Participants of the uprising were a diverse mix of ethnic, religious and political affiliations, including military mutineers, Shia Arab Islamists, Kurdish nationalists, and far-left groups. Following initial victories, the revolution was held back from continued success by internal divisions as well as a lack of anticipated American support. Saddam's Sunni Arab-dominated Ba'ath Party regime managed to maintain control over the capital of Baghdad and soon largely suppressed the rebels in a brutal campaign conducted by loyalist forces spearheaded by the Iraqi Republican Guard.

During the brief, roughly one month period of unrest, tens of thousands of people died and nearly two million people were displaced. After the conflict, the Iraqi government intensified a prior systematic forced relocation of Marsh Arabs and the draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes in the Tigris–Euphrates river system. The Persian Gulf War Coalition established Iraqi no-fly zones over northern and southern Iraq, and the Kurdish opposition established the Kurdish Autonomous Republic in what is now commonly referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan.

Total Casualties 230000 Killed and Wounded
Casualties Killed / Wounded
Military Casualties Killed 230000 /Wounded
Civilian Casualties Killed / Wounded
Belligerents Initiation Date Termination Date
Ba'athist Iraq and Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI) 1991 1991 View
Republican Guard (Iraq) and Badr Organization 1991 1991 View
Iraqi Army and Islamic Dawa Party 1991 1991 View
Popular Army (Iraq) and Peshmerga 1991 1991 View
Directorate of General Security and Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) 1991 1991 View
Iraqi Intelligence Service and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) 1991 1991 View
People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK) and Communist Party of Kurdistan (CPK) 1991 1991 View
Ba'athist Iraq and Kurdistan Islamic Movement (IMK) 1991 1991 View

Related Conflicts

No Releted Conflicts