The Fatah–Hamas conflict, also referred to as the Palestinian Civil War, is the conflict between the two main Palestinian political factions, Fatah and Hamas, resulting in the split of the Palestinian Authority in 2007. The reconciliation process and unification of Hamas and Fatah administrations has not finalized as of October 2014, despite claimed advances towards unification. The Palestinian Independent Commission for Citizens' Rights has found that more than 600 Palestinians were killed in the fighting from January 2006 to May 2007. Dozens more were killed or executed in the following years as part of the conflict.
Tensions between Fatah and Hamas began to rise in 2005. After the Hamas' legislative victory in 2006, relations were marked by sporadic factional fighting. This became more intense after the two parties repeatedly failed to reach a deal to share government power, escalating in June 2007 and resulting in Hamas' control of the Gaza strip. As of August 2007 the Palestinian Authority became split into two polities, each seeing itself as the true representative of the Palestinian people – the Fatah-ruled Palestinian National Authority and the Hamas Government in Gaza.
The Cairo reconciliation agreement between the parties was signed in May 2011, bringing hopes of reuniting the Fatah-ruled Palestinian National Authority and the Hamas Government in Gaza. The implementation of the agreement however was not executed up until the withdrawal of the Hamas external office from Damascus, due to the Syrian civil war. As a result, the Doha deal was signed by Mahmoud Abbas and Khaled Mashal in 2012. On 1 April 2012, the Doha implementation however was described as "stalling". with no progress on the joint elections scheme. In addition, the Fatah blamed Hamas that its security forces have set up roadblocks and arrested dozens of Fatah members and individuals in Gaza, whom they accused of "spreading rumors". In the aftermath of the Palestinian UN upgrade to observer state status, negotiations resumed in January 2013.
In April 2014 agreement between the two political groups, they agreed to hold elections and form a compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014. As of October 2014, despite formation of "technocratic" unity government in Ramallah and official give-up of Prime-Minister title by the Hamas' Gazan leader Haniye, the groups have not achieved an agreement on authority of the new government in Gaza and elections' date.