The Sinai insurgency comprises a series of actions by Islamist militants in the Sinai peninsula that evolved out of the Egyptian Crisis. After longtime Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak was overthrown in the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, militants in the Sinai exploited the chaotic situation in Egypt and weakened central authority to launch a series of attacks. The actions of those Islamist elements, largely composed of tribesmen among the local Bedouins, drew a harsh response from interim Egyptian government since mid-2011 known as Operation Eagle. However, attacks against government and foreign facilities in the area continued into 2012, resulting in a massive crackdown by the new Egyptian government nicknamed Operation Sinai. In May 2013, following an abduction of Egyptian officers, violence in the Sinai surged once again. Following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, which resulted in the ousting of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi, "unprecedented clashes" have occurred. On 2014, elements of the Ansar Bait al-Maqdis group claimed allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and proclaimed themselves as the "Province of Sinai".
Most of the Sinai Peninsula is divided among two Egyptian governorates, or provinces: South Sinai Governorate and North Sinai Governorate. Three more governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate ("the Suez") is on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Port Said Governorate in the north.