The Central African Republic conflict is a civil war in the Central African Republic between the Séléka rebel coalition and government forces, which began on 10 December 2012. The conflict arose after rebels accused the government of President François Bozizé of failing to abide by peace agreements signed in 2007 and 2011. Many of the rebel groups were previously involved in the Central African Republic Bush War.
Rebel forces known as Séléka (meaning "union" in the Sango language) captured many major towns in the central and eastern regions of the country in the end of 2012. Séléka comprises two major groups based in north-eastern CAR: the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR) and the Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (CPJP), but also includes the lesser known Patriotic Convention for Saving the Country (CPSK). Two other groups based in northern CAR, the Democratic Front of the Central African People (FDPC) and the Chadian group Popular Front for Recovery (FPR), also announced their allegiance to the Séléka coalition.
Chad, Gabon, Cameroon, Angola, South Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo sent troops as part of the Economic Community of Central African States' FOMAC force to help the Bozizé government hold back a potential rebel advance on the capital, Bangui. However, the capital was seized by the rebels on 24 March 2013 at which time François Bozizé fled the country, and the rebel leader Michel Djotodia declared himself president.
On 18 April 2013 Michel Djotodia was recognized as the transitional head of government at a regional summit in N'Djamena. On 14 May CAR's PM Nicolas Tiangaye requested a UN peacekeeping force from the UN Security Council and on 31 May former President Bozizé was indicted for crimes against humanity and incitement of genocide.
The security situation remained poor during June–August 2013 with reports of over 200,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) as well as human rights abuses including the use of child soldiers, rape, torture, extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances as well as renewed fighting between Séléka and Bozizé supporters in August with French President François Hollande calling on the UN Security Council and the African Union to increase their efforts to stabilize the country. By August the Séléka-run government under Djotodia was said to be increasingly divided. The conflict worsened towards the end of the year with international warnings of a "genocide." The fighting was between the government of the Central African Republic's former Séléka coalition of rebel groups, who are mainly from the Muslim minority (as is President Michel Djotodia), and the mainly Christian anti-balaka coalition. In January 2014, President Djotodia resigned and was replaced by Catherine Samba-Panza, but the conflict continued.
In 2014, Amnesty International reported several massacres committed by the anti-balakas against Muslim civilians, forcing thousands of Muslims to flee the country. Other sources report incidences of Muslims being cannibalized.