Cossack Hetmanate

The Cossack Hetmanate was a Ukrainian Cossack state in the Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764. The Hetmanate was founded by the Ukrainian hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Uprising of 1648–57.

In 1654, it signed a military alliance with the Tsardom of Russia during the Council of Pereyaslav, while being a constituency of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Later the documents of the treaty (articles) were rewritten numerous times for reorganization purposes at every election of the new hetman. A regional referendum concluded the fall of the region under the protection of the Russian monarchy that guaranteed the sovereignty of the region in the fight against the Polish Crown. The Treaty of Andrusovo of 1667, however, was conducted without any representation from the Cossack Hetmanate and concluded the borders between the Polish and Russian states, dividing the Hetmanate in half along the Dnieper. This division caused a civil war in the Ukraine between various parties of Cossacks that lasted till the end of the 17th century. Already in December of 1662 the government of Russia established the Little Russian prikaz as part a department of the Polish prikaz.

In the 18th century the territory of the Hetmanate was limited to Left-bank Ukraine with its capital in Baturyn. Russian forces sacked Baturyn during the Great Northern War and redesignated the new hetman residence to Hlukhiv, while the whole area was included into the Government of Kiev. Catherine II of Russia officially abolished the autonomy of the Zaporizhian Host, as well as the Volgian Cossacks Host, in 1764. The Cossack Hetmanate was subsequently split between the Governments of Kiev and Malorossiya.

The Hetmanate consisted of the territory of the modern-day central Ukraine and a small part of Russia (former Starodub region of Chernigov Governorate). Specifically, its territory included provinces of Chernihiv, Poltava, and Sumy (without the southeastern portion), the left-bank territories of Kiev and Cherkasy, as well as the western portion of Bryansk Oblast of Russia. The lands of the Zaporizhian Host had a certain degree of self-government with their own administration.

Formation Date 1649
Dissolution Date 1764
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
Austro-Russian–Turkish War 1735–1739 1735 1739 unknown unknown
Russo-Persian War 1722–1723 1722 1723 unknown unknown
Pruth River Campaign 1710-1711 1710 1711 unknown unknown
Great Northern War 1700-1721 1708 1709 unknown unknown
Russo-Turkish War 1686–1700 1686 1700 unknown unknown
Great Turkish War 1683-1699 1683 1699 unknown unknown
Polish–Ottoman War 1672–1676 1672 1676 unknown unknown
Second Northern War 1655-1660 1655 1660 unknown unknown
Russo-Polish War 1654–1667 1654 1667 unknown unknown