Congo (Zaire) (congo)

Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006. In 2009, following a resurgence of conflict in the eastern DRC, the government signed a peace agreement with the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), a primarily Tutsi rebel group. An attempt to integrate CNDP members into the Congolese military failed, prompting their defection in 2012 and the formation of the M23 armed group - named after the 23 March 2009 peace agreements. Renewed conflict has lead to the displacement of large numbers of people and significant human rights abuses. As of February 2013, peace talks between the Congolese government and the M23 were on-going. In addition, the DRC continues to experience violence committed by other armed groups including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda and Mai Mai groups. In the most recent national elections, held in November 2011, disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be re-elected to the presidency.

Details
Formation Date 1600
Territory 2267050.00 (Sq. Km)
Military Personel 134250
Military Expenditure 394,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF))
Population 67513677
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
M23 rebellion 2012 - 2013 2012 2013 unknown unknown
Kivu conflict 2004-2009 2004 2009 unknown unknown
Ituri conflict 1999-2007 1999 2007 unknown unknown
Tutsi Rebellion in the Congo 1998-Present 1998 ongoing unknown unknown
Second Congo War 1998-2003 1998 2003 unknown unknown
Allied Democratic Forces insurgency 1996 1996 ongoing unknown unknown
First Congo War 1996-1997 1996 1997 unknown unknown
Katanga Revolt in the Congo 1967 1967 1967 unknown unknown
Exiles Invasion of the Congo 1967 1967 1967 unknown unknown
Mobutu's Coup in the Congo 1965 1965 1965 unknown unknown
PRP Insurgency in the Congo (Zaire) 1964-1997 1964 1997 unknown unknown
Gbenye's Insurrection in the Congo (Zaire) 1964 1964 1964 unknown unknown
Military Coup in the Congo 1963 1963 1963 unknown unknown
Stanleyville Secession: the Congo 1960-1961 1960 1961 unknown unknown
Katangan Secession: the Congo 1960-1964 1960 1964 unknown unknown
Army Coup in the Congo 1960 1960 1960 unknown unknown
Uprising in the French Congo 1905 1905 1905 5000 unknown
Batetelan Revolt in the Belgian Congo 1897-1900 1897 1900 unknown unknown
Batetelan Uprising in the Belgian Congo 1895 1895 1895 unknown unknown
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Establishment Date Territory Area
2013 2267050.00
2012 2267050.00
2011 2267050.00
2010 2267050.00
2009 2267050.00
2008 2267050.00
2007 2267050.00
2006 2267050.00
2005 2267050.00
2004 2267050.00
2003 2267050.00
2002 2267050.00
2001 2267050.00
2000 2267050.00
1999 2267050.00
1998 2267050.00
1997 2267050.00
1996 2267050.00
1995 2267050.00
1994 2267050.00
1993 2267050.00
1992 2267050.00
1991 2267050.00
1990 2267050.00
1989 2267050.00
1988 2267050.00
1987 2267050.00
1986 2267050.00
1985 2267050.00
1984 2267050.00
1983 2267050.00
1982 2267050.00
1981 2267050.00
1980 2267050.00
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Date Military Personnel
2012 134250
2011 134250
2010 159000
2009 159000
2008 151000
2007 143000
2005 65000
2004 64000
2003 97800
2002 81400
2001 81400
2000 92900
1999 92900
1998 87000
1997 77000
1996 65100
1995 65100
1994 40000
1993 40000
1992 45000
1991 60000
1990 55000
1989 51000
1985 48000
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Date Expenditure Exchange Rate Us Doller Equivalence
2013 394,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 919.79 428358647.08
2012 283,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 919.76 307688962.34
2011 220,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 919.49 239263069.75
2010 166,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 905.91 183241160.82
2009 99,100,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 809.79 122377406.49
2008 89,500,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 559.29 160024316.54
2007 106,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 516.75 205128205.13
2006 96,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 468.28 205005552.23
2005 78,300,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 473.91 165221244.54
2004 55,000,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 399.48 137678982.68
2003 31,900,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 405.4 78687715.84
2000 2,900,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 21.83 132844709.12
1999 600,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 4.02 149253731.34
1998 43,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 1.61 26708074.53
1997 110,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 1.31 83969465.65
1996 45,000,000 (Congolese francs (CDF)) 0.5 90000000
    «1»
Date Population
2013 67513677
2012 65705093
2011 63931512
2010 62191161
2009 60486276
2008 58819038
2007 57187942
2006 55590838
2005 54028003
2004 52487293
2003 50972323
2002 49516960
2001 48167045
2000 46949244
1999 45889100
1998 44960941
1997 44078397
1996 43122601
1995 42012524
1994 40711816
1993 39257294
1992 37731020
1991 36253025
1990 34910591
1989 33727905
1988 32679158
1987 31740965
1986 30871855
1985 30039873
1984 29243529
1983 28490510
1982 27767775
1981 27060353
1980 26357407
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