Iran (iran)

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and concerns over possible military dimensions of its nuclear program. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, supported by the Supreme Leader, unelected institutions of authority like the Council of Guardians, and the security services reversed and blocked reform measures while increasing security repression. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives re-established control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial re-election in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud. These protests were quickly suppressed, and the political opposition that arouse as a consequence of AHMADI-NEJAD's election was repressed. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012, but Iran's internal security situation remained stable. President AHMADI-NEJAD's independent streak angered regime establishment figures, including the Supreme Leader, leading to conservative opposition to his agenda for the last year of his presidency, and an alienation of his political supporters. In June 2013 Iranians elected a moderate conservative cleric, Dr. Hasan Fereidun RUHANI to the presidency. He is a long-time senior member in the regime, but has made promises of reforming society and Iran's foreign policy. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities, but in November 2013 the five permanent members, plus Germany, (P5+1) signed a joint plan with Iran to provide the country with incremental relief from international pressure for positive steps toward transparency of their nuclear program.

Details
Formation Date 1500
Territory 1628550.00 (Sq. Km)
Military Personel 563000
Military Expenditure 129,400,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR))
Population 77447168
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
Northern Iraq Offensive 2014 2014 2014 unknown unknown
Iraqi Insurgency 2011 – Present 2011 ongoing 75957 unknown
Iraqi Insurgency 2011 – Present 2011 ongoing unknown unknown
Balochistan Conflict 2004 2004 ongoing unknown unknown
Iraqi Kurdish Civil War 1994-1997 1994 1997 unknown unknown
Iran-Iraq War 1980-1990 1980 1990 500000 unknown
The Iran Hostage Crisis 1979-1981 1979 1981 unknown unknown
Kurdistan Movement 1979-1995 1979 1995 23000 unknown
The Iranian Revolution 1978-1979 1978 1979 90000 unknown
Iranian Plot: Iraq 1970 1970 1970 unknown unknown
Military Coup in Iran 1953 1953 1953 unknown unknown
Anglo-American Plot: Iran 1953 1953 1953 unknown unknown
Kurdish Mahabad Republic 1945-1946 1945 1946 27000 unknown
Kurdish Rebellion in Iran 1930 1930 1930 unknown unknown
Constitutional Revolution in Persia 1906-1907 1906 1907 121000 unknown
Persian Expedition of 1796 1796 1796 unknown unknown
Battle of Krtsanisi 1795 1795 1795 unknown unknown
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Establishment Date Territory Area
2013 1628550.00
2012 1628550.00
2011 1628550.00
2010 1628550.00
2009 1628550.00
2008 1628550.00
2007 1628550.00
2006 1628550.00
2005 1628550.00
2004 1628550.00
2003 1628550.00
2002 1628550.00
2001 1628550.00
2000 1628550.00
1999 1628550.00
1998 1628550.00
1997 1628550.00
1996 1628550.00
1995 1628550.00
1994 1628550.00
1993 1628550.00
1992 1628550.00
1991 1628550.00
1990 1628550.00
1989 1628550.00
1988 1628550.00
1987 1628550.00
1986 1628550.00
1985 1628550.00
1984 1628550.00
1983 1628550.00
1982 1628550.00
1981 1628550.00
1980 1628550.00
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Date Military Personnel
2012 563000
2011 563000
2010 563000
2009 563000
2008 563000
2007 563000
2006 585000
2005 585000
2004 460000
2003 580000
2002 560000
2001 553000
2000 753000
1999 785600
1998 820000
1996 863000
1995 763000
1994 528000
1993 528000
1992 528000
1991 465000
1990 440000
1989 604000
1987 868000
1985 610000
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Date Expenditure Exchange Rate Us Doller Equivalence
2012 129,400,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 12175.55 10627856647.13
2011 116,850,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 10616.31 11006649202.97
2010 97,186,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 10254.18 9477695924.98
2009 78,379,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 9864.3 7945723467.45
2008 71,728,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 9428.53 7607548578.62
2007 76,465,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 9281.15 8238741966.24
2006 78,378,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 9170.94 8546343122.95
2005 64,655,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 8963.96 7212772033.79
2004 45,960,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 8613.99 5335506542.26
2003 34,955,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 8193.89 4265983556.04
2002 21,665,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 6907.02 3136663857.93
2001 27,847,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1753.9 15877187981.07
2000 24,443,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1764.77 13850530097.41
1999 14,608,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1753.27 8331859896.08
1998 8,142,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1752.2 4646729825.36
1997 6,548,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1753.26 3734756967.02
1996 5,265,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1751.1 3006681514.48
1995 3,251,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1748.27 1859552586.27
1994 3,542,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1749.09 2025053027.57
1993 1,707,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 1268.02 1346193277.71
1992 947,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 65.56 14444783404.51
1991 849,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 67.52 12574052132.7
1990 749,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 68.11 10996916752.31
1989 648,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 72.03 8996251561.85
1988 539,000,000,000 (Iranian Rials (IRR)) 68.7 7845705967.98
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Date Population
2013 77447168
2012 76424443
2011 75424285
2010 74462314
2009 73542954
2008 72660887
2007 71809219
2006 70976584
2005 70152384
2004 69342126
2003 68543171
2002 67727274
2001 66857624
2000 65911052
1999 64858754
1998 63713397
1997 62542531
1996 61440887
1995 60468352
1994 59663107
1993 58982430
1992 58307457
1991 57472293
1990 56361868
1989 54938264
1988 53250434
1987 51377914
1986 49440637
1985 47531740
1984 45672219
1983 43852710
1982 42100410
1981 40440041
1980 38889520
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