Kazakhstan (kazakh)

Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70 percent Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; managing Islamic revivalism; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.

Details
Formation Date 1600
Territory 2699700.00 (Sq. Km)
Military Personel 70500
Military Expenditure 426,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT))
Population 17037508
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa 2002 2002 ongoing unknown unknown
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Establishment Date Territory Area
2002 2699700.00
2008 2699700.00
1991 2699700.00
1984 2699700.00
2005 2699700.00
1999 2699700.00
2011 2699700.00
1987 2699700.00
1981 2699700.00
1996 2699700.00
2004 2699700.00
1993 2699700.00
1986 2699700.00
2010 2699700.00
2007 2699700.00
1989 2699700.00
2013 2699700.00
1983 2699700.00
1998 2699700.00
2012 2699700.00
1988 2699700.00
1980 2699700.00
2009 2699700.00
1995 2699700.00
2001 2699700.00
1992 2699700.00
2006 2699700.00
1994 2699700.00
2000 2699700.00
1982 2699700.00
1997 2699700.00
2003 2699700.00
1985 2699700.00
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Date Military Personnel
2012 70500
2011 70500
2010 80500
2009 80500
2008 81000
2007 81000
2006 81000
2005 101000
2004 99000
2003 100300
2002 94500
2001 98500
2000 98500
1999 100300
1998 89600
1997 69600
1996 74500
1995 74500
1994 18000
1993 15000
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Date Expenditure Exchange Rate Us Doller Equivalence
2013 426,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 152.13 2800236639.72
2012 363,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 149.11 2434444369.93
2011 265,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 146.62 1807393261.49
2010 221,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 147.36 1499728555.92
2009 188,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 147.5 1274576271.19
2008 185,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 120.3 1537822111.39
2007 167,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 122.55 1362709098.33
2006 100,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 126.09 793084304.86
2005 78,700,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 132.88 592263696.57
2004 58,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 136.04 426345192.59
2003 47,500,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 149.58 317555822.97
2002 37,700,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 153.28 245955114.82
2001 32,500,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 146.74 221480169.01
2000 20,400,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 142.13 143530570.6
1999 17,200,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 119.52 143908969.21
1998 19,000,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 78.3 242656449.55
1997 17,900,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 75.44 237274655.36
1996 16,300,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 67.3 242199108.47
1995 10,800,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 60.95 177194421.66
1994 3,800,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) 35.54 106921778.28
1993 300,000,000 (Tenge (KZT)) Unknown Unknown
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Date Population
2013 17037508
2012 16791425
2011 16556600
2010 16321581
2009 16092701
2008 15674000
2007 15484192
2006 15308084
2005 15147029
2004 15012984
2003 14909019
2002 14858948
2001 14858335
2000 14883626
1999 14928426
1998 15071300
1997 15333703
1996 15577894
1995 15815626
1994 16095199
1993 16330419
1992 16439095
1991 16450500
1990 16348000
1989 16249500
1988 16130831
1987 16013030
1986 15896089
1985 15780002
1984 15599589
1983 15421240
1982 15244929
1981 15070634
1980 14898332
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