Mali (mali)

The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighbouring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president in the second round.

Details
Formation Date 1600
Territory 1220190.00 (Sq. Km)
Military Personel 7800
Military Expenditure 76,000,000,000 (XOF)
Population 15301650
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara 2007 2007 ongoing unknown unknown
Tuareg rebellion 2007–2009 2007 2009 unknown unknown
Malian Civil War 1990-1996 1990 1996 unknown unknown
Tuareg rebellion 1990–1995 1990 1995 unknown unknown
Mali-Upper Volta Border War 1974-1975 1974 1975 unknown unknown
Military Coup in Mali 1968 1968 1968 unknown unknown
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Establishment Date Territory Area
2013 1220190.00
2012 1220190.00
2011 1220190.00
2010 1220190.00
2009 1220190.00
2008 1220190.00
2007 1220190.00
2006 1220190.00
2005 1220190.00
2004 1220190.00
2003 1220190.00
2002 1220190.00
2001 1220190.00
2000 1220190.00
1999 1220190.00
1998 1220190.00
1997 1220190.00
1996 1220190.00
1995 1220190.00
1994 1220190.00
1993 1220190.00
1992 1220190.00
1991 1220190.00
1990 1220190.00
1989 1220190.00
1988 1220190.00
1987 1220190.00
1986 1220190.00
1985 1220190.00
1984 1220190.00
1983 1220190.00
1982 1220190.00
1981 1220190.00
1980 1220190.00
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Date Military Personnel
2012 7800
2011 12150
2010 12150
2009 12150
2008 12000
2007 12000
2006 12000
2005 12000
2004 11000
2003 12200
2002 15200
2001 15200
2000 15200
1999 15200
1998 15150
1997 15150
1996 15200
1995 15200
1994 12000
1993 12000
1992 12000
1991 13000
1990 13000
1989 8000
1985 4900
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Date Expenditure Exchange Rate Us Doller Equivalence
2013 76,000,000,000 (XOF) 494.04 153833697.68
2012 76,000,000,000 (XOF) 510.53 148864905.1
2011 76,000,000,000 (XOF) 471.87 161061309.26
2010 72,700,000,000 (XOF) 495.28 146785656.6
2009 68,200,000,000 (XOF) 472.19 144433384.87
2008 64,000,000,000 (XOF) 447.81 142917755.3
2007 52,900,000,000 (XOF) 479.27 110376197.13
2006 50,200,000,000 (XOF) 522.89 96004895.87
2005 45,600,000,000 (XOF) 527.47 86450414.24
2004 40,900,000,000 (XOF) 528.28 77421064.59
2003 38,800,000,000 (XOF) 581.2 66758430.83
2002 34,400,000,000 (XOF) 696.99 49355084
2001 32,900,000,000 (XOF) 733.04 44881589
2000 31,100,000,000 (XOF) 711.98 43681002.28
1999 27,000,000,000 (XOF) 615.7 43852525.58
1998 24,200,000,000 (XOF) 589.95 41020425.46
1997 23,500,000,000 (XOF) 583.67 40262477.08
1996 20,300,000,000 (XOF) 511.55 39683315.41
1995 20,200,000,000 (XOF) 499.15 40468796.95
1994 16,600,000,000 (XOF) 555.2 29899135.45
1993 12,600,000,000 (XOF) 283.16 44497810.43
1990 14,200,000,000 (XOF) 272.26 52156027.33
1989 14,700,000,000 (XOF) 319.01 46080060.19
1988 14,300,000,000 (XOF) 297.85 48010743.66
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Date Population
2013 15301650
2012 14853572
2011 14416737
2010 13985961
2009 13559296
2008 13138299
2007 12725629
2006 12325545
2005 11941258
2004 11572936
2003 11219737
2002 10882662
2001 10562768
2000 10260577
1999 9977308
1998 9712365
1997 9462256
1996 9222157
1995 8988853
1994 8759442
1993 8535338
1992 8322743
1991 8130473
1990 7964066
1989 7826368
1988 7713098
1987 7613990
1986 7514770
1985 7405201
1984 7281246
1983 7145879
1982 7004456
1981 6865516
1980 6735247
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