Netherlands (nether)

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country, lying mainly in Western Europe, but also including three islands in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom and Germany. The largest and most important cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague and Rotterdam. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of government and parliament. The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe – as large as the next three largest combined.

The Netherlands' name literally means "Low Country", inspired by its low and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made. Since the late 16th century, large areas (polders) have been reclaimed from the sea and from lakes, amounting to nearly 17% of the country's current land mass.

With a population density of 406 people per km² – 497 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is a very densely populated country for its size. Only Bangladesh, South Korea and Taiwan have both a larger population and a higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second largest exporter of food and agriculture products, after the United States.

The Netherlands was one of the first countries in the world to have an elected parliament, and since 1848 it has been governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, organised as a unitary state. The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and is generally regarded as a liberal country, having legalised abortion, prostitution and euthanasia, while maintaining a progressive drugs policy. In 2001 it became the world's first country to legalize same-sex marriage.

The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD, WTO and a part of the trilateral Benelux economic union. The country is host to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and five international courts: the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EU's criminal intelligence agency Europol and judicial co-operation agency Eurojust. This has led to the city being dubbed "the world's legal capital". The Netherlands is also a part of the Schengen Area.

The Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund. In 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the fourth happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.

Details
Formation Date 1482
Territory 33720.00 (Sq. Km)
Military Personel 43300
Military Expenditure 7,777,000,000 (Euros (EUR))
Population 16804224
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
Iraqi Insurgency 2011 – Present 2011 ongoing 75957 unknown
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa 2002 2002 ongoing unknown unknown
Gulf War 1990-1991 1990 1991 unknown unknown
Insurgency in Netherlands New Guinea 1962 1962 1962 unknown unknown
Indonesian National Revolution 1945-1950 1946 1950 7000 unknown
World War II 1939-1945 1939 1945 73000000 unknown
Belgian War of Independence 1830 1830 1830 unknown unknown
Great Java War 1825-1830 1825 1830 11000 unknown
The Hundred Days War 1815 1815 1815 118825 unknown
Kieft's War 1643-1645 1643 1645 unknown unknown
«1»
Establishment Date Territory Area
2013 33720.00
2012 33720.00
2011 33730.00
2010 33730.00
2009 33730.00
2008 33760.00
2007 33760.00
2006 33760.00
2005 33760.00
2004 33760.00
2003 33760.00
2002 33760.00
2001 33760.00
2000 33760.00
1999 33760.00
1998 33760.00
1997 33760.00
1996 33760.00
1995 33760.00
1994 33760.00
1993 33760.00
1992 33760.00
1991 33760.00
1990 33760.00
1989 33760.00
1988 33760.00
1987 33760.00
1986 33760.00
1985 33760.00
1984 33760.00
1983 33760.00
1982 33760.00
1981 33760.00
1980 33760.00
    «1»
Date Military Personnel
2012 43300
2011 43300
2010 43279
2009 43279
2008 47000
2007 41000
2006 46000
2005 60000
2004 53000
2003 59900
2002 52900
2001 55600
2000 57100
1999 60000
1998 60780
1997 60800
1996 66700
1995 78000
1994 77000
1993 86000
1992 90000
1991 104000
1990 104000
1989 106000
1985 105500
    «1»
Date Expenditure Exchange Rate Us Doller Equivalence
2013 7,777,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2012 8,244,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2011 8,379,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2010 8,472,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2009 8,733,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2008 8,448,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2007 8,388,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2006 8,145,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2005 7,693,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2004 7,552,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2003 7,404,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2002 7,149,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2001 6,929,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
2000 6,482,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
1999 6,595,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) Unknown Unknown
1998 6,154,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.98 3108080808.08
1997 6,056,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.95 3105641025.64
1996 5,989,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.69 3543786982.25
1995 5,837,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.61 3625465838.51
1994 5,895,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.82 3239010989.01
1993 5,946,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.86 3196774193.55
1992 6,308,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.76 3584090909.09
1991 6,148,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.87 3287700534.76
1990 6,132,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.82 3369230769.23
1989 6,158,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 2.12 2904716981.13
1988 6,035,000,000 (Euros (EUR)) 1.98 3047979797.98
    «1»
Date Population
2013 16804224
2012 16754962
2011 16693074
2010 16615394
2009 16530388
2008 16445593
2007 16381696
2006 16346101
2005 16319868
2004 16281779
2003 16225302
2002 16148929
2001 16046180
2000 15925513
1999 15812088
1998 15707209
1997 15610650
1996 15530498
1995 15459006
1994 15382838
1993 15290368
1992 15184166
1991 15069798
1990 14951510
1989 14848907
1988 14760094
1987 14665037
1986 14572278
1985 14491632
1984 14424211
1983 14367070
1982 14312690
1981 14247208
1980 14149800
    «1»