Sudan (sudan)

Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed on September 27, 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided. Since South Sudan's independence, conflict has broken out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, which has resulted in 1.2 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons in need of humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. Violence in Darfur in 2013 resulted in an additional estimated 6,000 civilians killed and 500,000 displaced. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation known as the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. In 2013, 16 peacekeepers were killed, UNAMID's deadliest year so far. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and government denial of access have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

Details
Formation Date 1600
Territory 2376000.00 (Sq. Km)
Military Personel 264300
Military Expenditure 3,338,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG))
Population 37964306
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
Heglig Crisis 2012 2012 2012 unknown unknown
Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile 2011 - Present 2011 ongoing unknown unknown
Invasion of Anjouan 2008 2008 2008 unknown unknown
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa 2002 2002 ongoing unknown unknown
Second Congo War 1998-2003 1998 2003 unknown unknown
Military Coup in Sudan 1985 1985 1985 unknown unknown
Military Coup in Sudan 1969 1969 1969 unknown unknown
Military Coup in Sudan 1958 1958 1958 unknown unknown
Sudanese Civil War 1955-Present 1955 ongoing unknown unknown
British Reconquest of Sudan 1896-1899 1896 1899 unknown unknown
The Mahdist Jihad 1881-1885 1881 1885 546000 unknown
Egyptian Invasion of Sudan 1820-1838 1820 1838 20000 unknown
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Establishment Date Territory Area
2013 2376000.00
2012 2376000.00
2011 2376000.00
2010 2376000.00
2009 2376000.00
2008 2376000.00
2007 2376000.00
2006 2376000.00
2005 2376000.00
2004 2376000.00
2003 2376000.00
2002 2376000.00
2001 2376000.00
2000 2376000.00
1999 2376000.00
1998 2376000.00
1997 2376000.00
1996 2376000.00
1995 2376000.00
1994 2376000.00
1993 2376000.00
1992 2376000.00
1991 2376000.00
1990 2376000.00
1989 2376000.00
1988 2376000.00
1987 2376000.00
1986 2376000.00
1985 2376000.00
1984 2376000.00
1983 2376000.00
1982 2376000.00
1981 2376000.00
1980 2376000.00
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Date Military Personnel
2012 264300
2011 264300
2010 126800
2009 126800
2008 127000
2007 127000
2005 123000
2004 121000
2003 114500
2002 124000
2001 124000
2000 119500
1999 109700
1998 109700
1997 94700
1996 104000
1995 133500
1994 82000
1993 82000
1992 82000
1991 65000
1990 65000
1989 65000
1985 56600
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Date Expenditure Exchange Rate Us Doller Equivalence
2006 3,338,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.17 1538248847.93
2005 2,838,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.44 1163114754.1
2004 3,200,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.58 1240310077.52
2003 1,039,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.61 398084291.19
2002 1,276,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.63 485171102.66
2001 1,004,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.59 387644787.64
2000 1,510,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.57 587548638.13
1999 1,085,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.53 428853754.94
1998 522,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 2.01 259701492.54
1997 154,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 1.58 97468354.43
1996 133,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 1.25 106400000
1995 113,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 0.58 194827586.21
1994 47,900,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 0.29 165172413.79
1993 30,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 0.16 187500000
1992 13,000,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 0.1 130000000
1991 6,900,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) 0.01 690000000
1990 3,900,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) Unknown Unknown
1988 1,700,000 (Sudanese Pounds (SDG)) Unknown Unknown
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Date Population
2013 37964306
2012 37195349
2011 36430923
2010 35652002
2009 34853178
2008 34040065
2007 33218250
2006 32397535
2005 31585871
2004 30778572
2003 29973979
2002 29186427
2001 28434810
2000 27729798
1999 27085465
1998 26491253
1997 25903704
1996 25263021
1995 24529722
1994 23683211
1993 22745490
1992 21771781
1991 20840825
1990 20008804
1989 19295483
1988 18682216
1987 18139966
1986 17622954
1985 17097619
1984 16557307
1983 16012898
1982 15469003
1981 14935032
1980 14418063
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