Turkmenistan (turkmen)

Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim crusaders, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited, have begun to transform the country. Turkmenistan is moving to expand its extraction and delivery projects. The Government of Turkmenistan is actively working to diversify its gas export routes beyond the still important Russian pipeline network. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president; he was chosen as president again in February 2012, in an election that the OSCE said lacked the freedoms necessary to create a competitive environment.

Details
Formation Date 1600
Territory 469930.00 (Sq. Km)
Military Personel 22000
Military Expenditure 116,400,000 (Turkmen Manat (TMM))
Population 5240072
Conflict Name Initiation Year Termination Year Total Killed Total Casuality
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa 2002 2002 ongoing unknown unknown
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Establishment Date Territory Area
2013 469930.00
2012 469930.00
2011 469930.00
2010 469930.00
2009 469930.00
2008 469930.00
2007 469930.00
2006 469930.00
2005 469930.00
2004 469930.00
2003 469930.00
2002 469930.00
2001 469930.00
2000 469930.00
1999 469930.00
1998 469930.00
1997 469930.00
1996 469930.00
1995 469930.00
1994 469930.00
1993 469930.00
1992 469930.00
1991 469930.00
1990 469930.00
1989 469930.00
1988 469930.00
1987 469930.00
1986 469930.00
1985 469930.00
1984 469930.00
1983 469930.00
1982 469930.00
1981 469930.00
1980 469930.00
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Date Military Personnel
2012 22000
2011 22000
2010 22000
2009 22000
2008 22000
2007 22000
2006 22000
2005 26000
2004 26000
2003 29000
2002 17500
2001 17500
2000 14500
1999 19000
1998 19000
1997 18000
1996 18000
1995 11000
1994 15000
1993 28000
1992 28000
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Date Expenditure Exchange Rate Us Doller Equivalence
1999 116,400,000 (Turkmen Manat (TMM)) 5200 22384.62
1998 87,160,000 (Turkmen Manat (TMM)) 4890.17 17823.51
1997 88,031,600 (Turkmen Manat (TMM)) 4143.42 21246.12
1996 31,654,200 (Turkmen Manat (TMM)) 3257.67 9716.82
1995 3,010,600 (Turkmen Manat (TMM)) 110.92 27142.08
1994 305,600 (Turkmen Manat (TMM)) 19.2 15916.67
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Date Population
2013 5240072
2012 5172931
2011 5106668
2010 5041995
2009 4978962
2008 4917543
2007 4858236
2006 4801595
2005 4747839
2004 4696876
2003 4648037
2002 4600171
2001 4551762
2000 4501419
1999 4449427
1998 4395293
1997 4335991
1996 4267690
1995 4188010
1994 4095512
1993 3991917
1992 3881973
1991 3772350
1990 3668000
1989 3570558
1988 3479088
1986 3310059
1985 3229499
1984 3151262
1983 3075867
1982 3002785
1981 2931343
1980 2861000
1887 3392823
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