152 mm towed gun-howitzer M1955 (D-20)

The 152 mm gun-howitzer M1955, also known as the D-20, (Russian: 152-мм пушка-гаубица Д-20 обр. 1955 г.) is a manually loaded, towed 152 mm artillery piece, manufactured in the Soviet Union during the 1950s. It was first observed by the west in 1955, at which time it was designated the M1955. Its GRAU index is 52-P-546.

152 mm towed gun-howitzer M1955 (D-20)
Class Vehicle
Type Towed Artillery
Manufacturer Factory No.9 Ural Heavy Machinery Factory (UTZM)
Origin Russia (USSR)
Country Name Origin Year
Russia (USSR) 1955
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Russia (USSR) View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Factory No.9 Ural Heavy Machinery Factory (UTZM) View

152 mm has been a Russian calibre since World War I, when Britain supplied 6 inch Howitzers and Russia purchased 152 mm guns from Schneider (probably derived from the 155  mm Gun Mle 1877/16) for the Imperial Army. The new gun-howitzer, was a replacement of the pre-war ML-20 gun-howitzer (the 152 mm howitzer M1937) and various World War II era 152 mm field howitzers, Model 09/30, Model 1910/30, Model 1938 M10 and Model 1943 D-1. By Soviet definition, a 152 mm howitzer is ‘medium’ calibre artillery. It was designated a ‘gun-howitzer’ because its muzzle velocity exceeded 600 m/s, and its barrel length exceeded 30 calibres. It equipped battalions in the motor rifle division artillery regiment and army level artillery brigades.

The design, which was probably initiated in the late 1940s, was first seen in public in 1955. It was designed by the well established design bureau at Artillery Plant No 9 in Sverdlovsk (now Motovilikha Plants in Yekaterinburg) led by the eminent artillery designer Fëdor Fëdorovich Petrov (1902–1978), who was responsible for several World War II pieces. The gun's factory designation was "D-20".

The carriage is the same as that used for the D-74 122 mm Field Gun. The barrel assembly was the basis for the D-22 (GRAU index: 2A33), which was used for the self-propelled 2S3 Akatsiya ("Acacia").

Type Towed howitzer
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
Used by Soviet Union and numerous others
Wars Vietnam War, Six-Day War,Yom Kippur War, Soviet war in Afghanistan, Syrian civil war and numerous others
Production history
Designer Petrov Artillery Design Bureau
Designed Circa 1947
Manufacturer Artillery Plant Number 9,Yekaterinburg
Weight 5,700 kg (12,566 lbs)
Length 8.69 m (28 ft 6 in)
Barrel length 5.195 m (20 ft)
Width 2.35 m (7 ft 9 in)
Height 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in)
Crew 8
Caliber 152.4 mm (6 in)
Breech Vertical semi-automatic sliding wedge
Recoil hydraulic buffer and hydropneumatic recuperator
Carriage Split trail
Elevation -5° to 63°
Traverse 58°
Rate of fire Burst: 5-6 rpm
Sustained: 1 rpm
Muzzle velocity 650 m/s (2,132 ft/s) (typical)
Effective firing range 17.4 km (11 mi)
Maximum firing range 24 km (15 mi)
(rocket assisted projectile)
Sights PG1M indirect sight and OP4M direct fire sight

End notes