320 mm Model 1934 naval gun

The 320 mm naval gun was the main battery gun used to modernize Italy's World War I battleships for service during World War II. The guns were manufactured by boring out and relining the battleships' original 12"/50 (30 cm) built-up guns and modifying the turrets to increase elevation above the original 20°  maximum. Each ship carried two 548-tonne twin turrets and two 745-tonne triple turrets. All guns used pneumatically operated side-swing Welin breech blocks. Each barrel could fire two rounds per minute.

In service these guns chronically suffered of great horizontal dispersion, both from the worsened thermodynamic performance of the guns themselves and from the unequal quality of the shells fired.

Country Name Origin Year
Italy 1937
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Italy 1937 1956 View
Russia (USSR) 1937 1956 View

Type Naval gun
Place of origin Italy
Service history
In service 1937 – 1956
Used by  Regia Marina
 Soviet Navy
 Marina Militare
Wars Second World War
Weight 64 tonnes
Barrel length 14 meters (550 inches)
Shell 525 kilograms (1,160 lb)
Caliber 320 mm (12.6 in)
Muzzle velocity 830 meters per second (2,700 ft/sec)
Maximum firing range 30 kilometres (19 mi)

End notes