AZP S-60

57 mm AZP S-60 (Russian: Автоматическая зенитная пушка С-60, abbrev. АЗП (AZP); literally: Automatic anti-aircraft gun S-60) is a Soviet towed, road-transportable, short- to medium-range, single-barrel anti-aircraft gun from the 1950s. The gun was extensively used in Warsaw Pact, Middle Eastern and South-East Asian countries.

Country Name Origin Year
Russia (USSR) 1950
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Afghanistan View
Albania View
Algeria View
Angola View
Armenia View
Bangladesh View
Bosnia-Herzegovina View
Bulgaria View
Cambodia (Kampuchea) View
China View
Cuba View
Czechoslovakia View
Egypt View
Ethiopia View
Finland View
Georgia View
Guinea View
Guinea Bissau View
Hungary View
India View
Indonesia View
Iran (Persia) View
Iraq View
Israel View
Kyrgyzstan View
Laos View
Libya View
Mali View
Mauritania View
Moldova View
Mongolia View
Morocco View
Nicaragua View
North Korea View
Pakistan View
Poland View
Romania View
Russia (USSR) 1950 View
Russia (USSR) View
Russia (USSR) View
Somalia View
Sudan View
Syria View
Thailand (Siam) View
Turkmenistan View
Ukraine View
Vietnam View
Yugoslavia (Serbia) View
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) View
Slovakia View
Belarus View
Democratic Republic of the Congo View
Mozambique View

In the late 1940s, the Soviets started to develop a 57 mm anti-aircraft gun, to replace its 37 mm guns. Three different models were presented, and the winning design was made by V. G. Grabin. According to western intelligence sources, the German prototype gun 5,5 cm Gerät 58 formed the basis for the design. The Soviets were also able to study German 5 cm Flak 41 guns that had been captured following the Battle of Stalingrad.

The prototype passed the field tests in 1946 and was accepted into service in 1950, after some minor modifications. The anti-aircraft gun was given the name 57 mm AZP S-60. Grabin continued the development and fielded the SPAAG version ZSU-57-2 in 1955.

The fire direction device was developed from the German Lambda calculator (Kommandogerät 40, 40A, and 40B) and was called PUAZO-5A. It had also a distance measuring device called D-49. The fire direction was also made more effective by including Grom-2 (10 cm wavelength) radars to the AA-batteries. The whole system was called SON-9. Later on, the calculators would be changed into the more modern RPK-1 Vaza, which had been designed by M. M. Kositskin. The calculator and the radars were transported by Ural 375 trucks.

The 57 mm gun replaced the 37 mm divisional guns in Soviet service in the 1950s. A divisional anti-aircraft regiment consisted of two AA-batteries with six 57 mm guns each. The PVO air-defence troops AA-regiments consisted of four 57 mm AA-batteries (24 guns).

In the mid-1960s, the Soviet divisional anti-aircraft units began replacing their AA-guns with missiles, and by the end of the 1970s, the AA-guns had almost disappeared. However, they were used in many other countries. The performance of AAA in Vietnam against low-flying aircraft led the Soviets to bring back many guns from storage to supplement the Surface-to-Air Missiles, whose performance at low altitude was less than satisfactory.

The S-60 and its Chinese copy (the Type 59) have seen combat in several wars all over the World, e.g. the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War in the Middle East and the Soviet war in Afghanistan. During the Vietnam War, the S-60 was the keystone of North Vietnamese low-altitude air defense and was most effective between 460 meters and 1,500 meters.

In Iraq (Iran–Iraq War, Gulf War and Iraq War), the S-60, normally deployed in battalions of 36 guns, served consistently in defense of divisional headquarters and field artillery assets.

Syrian S-60 guns were actively used during the Syrian Civil War by both the army and different rebel groups. As many other guns originally designed for antiaircraft use, most of the time they were used in shelling ground targets.

Type Autocannon
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1950–present
Used by See users
Wars Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Iran–Iraq War
Gulf War
Iraq War
numerous others
Weight 4,660 kg (10,273 lbs)
Length 8.5 m (27 ft 11 in)
Width 2.054 m (6 ft 9 in)
Height 2.37 m (7 ft 9 in)
Crew 7
Shell 57×348 mm. SR
Caliber 57 mm (2.24 in)
Rate of fire 105-120 rpm (cyclic)
70 rpm (sustained)
Muzzle velocity 1,000 m/s (3,281 ft/s)
Effective firing range 6,000 m (20,000 ft) (radar guided)
4,000 m (13,000 ft) (optically guided)

End notes