BM-21 Grad

The BM-21 launch vehicle (Russian: БМ-21 "Град"), (Grad) a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher, and a M-21OF rocket were developed in the early 1960s. BM stands for boyevaya mashina (combat vehicle), and the nickname grad means "hail". The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle and the M-21OF rocket is designated as the M-21 Field Rocket System. The complete system is more commonly known as a Grad multiple rocket launcher system. In NATO countries, the system (either the complete system or the launch vehicle only) was initially known as M1964. Several other countries have copied it or developed similar systems.

BM-21 Grad
Class Vehicle
Type Self-Propelled artillery
Manufacturer Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
Origin Russia (USSR)
Country Name Origin Year
Russia (USSR) 1963
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Afghanistan View
Algeria View
Angola View
Armenia View
Bangladesh View
Bosnia-Herzegovina View
Bulgaria View
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) View
Burundi View
Cambodia (Kampuchea) View
Cameroon View
Ceylon (Sri Lanka) View
Chad View
Croatia View
Cuba View
Cyprus View
Djibouti View
Ecuador View
Egypt View
Eritrea View
Ethiopia View
Gaza View
Georgia View
Greece View
Hungary View
India View
Indonesia View
Iran (Persia) View
Iraq View
Ivory Coast View
Kazakhstan View
Kyrgyzstan View
Lebanon View
Liberia View
Libya View
Macedonia View
Moldova View
Mongolia View
Morocco View
Namibia View
Nicaragua View
Nigeria View
North Korea View
Pakistan View
Peru View
Poland View
Romania View
Russia (USSR) View
Somalia View
Syria View
Tajikistan View
Tanzania View
Thailand (Siam) View
Turkmenistan View
Ukraine View
Uzbekistan View
Venezuela View
Vietnam View
Yemen View
Yugoslavia (Serbia) View
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) View
Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) View
Azerbaijan View
Belarus View
Democratic Republic of the Congo View
Democratic Republic of the Congo View
Mozambique View
Myanmar View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Splav State Research and Production Enterprise 1963 View

Type Multiple rocket launcher
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1963–present
Used by See Operators
Wars Vietnam War
Lebanese Civil War
Angolan Civil War
Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Sino-Vietnamese War
Iran–Iraq War
Soviet War in Afghanistan
Nagorno-Karabakh War
First Chechen War
1995 Cenepa War
Second Chechen War
Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel
Russo-Georgian War
Cambodian–Thai border dispute
Operation Serval
Western Sahara War
War in Donbass
Production history
Designer Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
Designed 1963
Manufacturer Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
Produced 1963–present
Variants See Variants
Specifications (9K51)
Weight 13.71 tonnes (30,225 lb)
Length 7.35 m (24 ft 1 in)
Barrel length 3.0 m (9 ft 10 in)
Width 2.40 m (7 ft 10 in)
Height 3.09 m (10 ft 2 in)
Crew 3
Barrels 40
Rate of fire 2 rounds/s
Muzzle velocity 690 m/s (2,264 ft/s)
Maximum firing range 20 km (new rockets 30–45 km)
Sights PG-1M panoramic telescope
Engine V-8 gasoline ZiL-375
180 hp (130 kW)
Suspension 6×6 wheeled
405 km (251 mi)
Speed 75 km/h (47 mph)

End notes