M13 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage

The M13 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage (M13 MGMC) was a World War II self-propelled anti-aircraft gun produced by the White Motor Company when the United States needed a mobile anti-aircraft (AA) vehicle. Production commenced in July 1942 and ended in May 1943. The only time it was ever used was when the Americans landed at Anzio in January 1944. It was replaced by the better armed M16 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage in April 1944.

The M13 evolved from a series of several unsuccessful prototypes that were trialed from 1940 to 1942 until the T1E4 was selected, given an official name (the M13 MGMC), and it finally started production. Half of the M13 production were converted into M16s on the production lines.

The M13 Half-track was 21 ft 4 in (6.50 m) long, 7 ft 3 in (2.16 m) wide,[1] 7 ft 8 in (2.34 m) high with a wheelbase of 135.5 in (3.44 m). It had bogie suspension for the wheels and vertical volute springs for the tracks. It had a 60 US gallons (230 l) fuel capacity and a range of 175 mi (282 km). The vehicle was powered by a White 160AX, 128 hp (95 kW), 386 in3 (6,330 kW), six cylinder, gasoline engine, with a compression ratio of 6.3:1. It had a power to weight ratio of 15.8 hp per tonne and weighed nine tons. The armor across most of the vehicle was 0.25 inch (6 mm) thick with a 0.5 in (12 mm) thick windscreen visor. The vehicle was armed with two M2 Browning heavy machine guns mounted on an M33 Maxson Mount. The two machine guns were fired electrically and powered by a small electrical engine near the back of the turret. The guns were aimed with a Mark 9 reflector sight.

M13 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage
Class Vehicle
Type Self-Propelled artillery
Manufacturer White Motor Company
Production Period 1942 - 1943
Origin United States of America
Country Name Origin Year
United States of America 1944
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
United States of America 1944 View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
White Motor Company 1942 1943 1103 View

There was a long-standing requirement for an anti-aircraft vehicle to protect the U.S. Army's mechanized columns (or in short, troop convoys) from aircraft, and work on that vehicle was started in October 1940.

The first vehicle in the development of anti-aircraft armament on a half-track was the T1, which had two M2 machine guns on a Bendix machine gun mount—as used on jeeps—mounted on a 4×4 truck. The T1E1 had a power-operated Bendix mount, and the T1E2 a Maxson mounting. The T1E3 had an electro-dynamic Glenn L. Martin Company aircraft-type turret. Evaluation of these test vehicles led to the T1E2 design being preferred. (The T1E2 became the M16 Half-track by replacing the M33 with the M45 mount and the M2 Half-track chassis with the M3 Half-track chassis).

T1E4 and M13

The next stage of development was to use the T1E2 configuration on the longer chassis of the M3 Half-track, since it could store more ammunition. This vehicle, originally designated as the T1E4, was accepted into production as the M13 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage on 27 July 1942.

A total of 1,103 were produced from 27 July 1942 to 15 May 1943. Half of them (583) were converted into M16s by the White Motor Company before reaching the army.

The M13 served at the Landing at Anzio with the VI Corps of the Fifth United States Army in January 1944. It was used as an anti-aircraft support weapon during the landing at Anzio and then later to repel heavy German panzer attacks on the beachhead. It was replaced three months later by the M16 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage in April 1944. Only 139 were deployed overseas by the United States Army.

Type Self-propelled anti aircraft gun
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1944
Used by United States
Wars World War II
Production history
Designer White Motor Company
Designed 1940–42
Manufacturer White Motor Company
Produced 1942–43
Number built 1103
Specifications
Length 6.50 m (21 ft 4 in)
Width 2.16 m (7 ft 1 in)
Height 2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)
Crew 5 (Commander, driver, gunner, 2 ammunition loaders)
Main
armament
2 × M2 Browning machine gun in a Maxson M33 turret mount
Engine White 160AX, 386 in3 (6,330 cc), 6 cylinder, gasoline engine,compression ratio 6.3:1,
128 hp (95 kW)
Power/weight 15.8 hp/tonne
Suspension half-track, vertical volute spring for track, bogies for wheels.
Fuel capacity 60 US gal (230 l)
Operational
range
175 mi (282 km)
Speed 45 mph (72 km/h)

End notes