TOS-1

TOS-1 (Russian: ТОС-1 - тяжёлая огнемётная система, English: Heavy Flamethrower System) is a Soviet 220mm 30-barrel (original system, Ob.634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Ob.634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. TOS-1 was designed for defeating enemy personnel in fortifications, in open country, and in lightly armoured vehicles and transport. First combat tests took place in 1988-1989 in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The TOS-1 was shown for the first time in public in 1999 in Omsk.

The TOS-1 is not used by the artillery units of the Russian Armed Forces but is found in NBC defense units (Russian: войскa радиационной, химической и биологической защиты (РХБЗ)).

Country Name Origin Year
Russia (USSR) 1988
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Russia (USSR) 1988 View

The idea of a heavy short-range MLRS to launch rockets equipped with incendiary and thermobaric warheads arose in the late 1970s. The combat system consisting of the combat vehicle, rockets, and loading vehicle was developed in early 1980s at KBTM in Omsk and was named TOS-1, remaining a secret development for a long time.

The TOS-1 is intended to engage military personnel, equipment, and buildings, including fortified constructions. The combat vehicle acts within the combat order of infantry and tanks. The large mass of the launcher and the need for a high-level of protection (due to the relatively short range of 3,500 m (11,500 ft)) helped determine the use of the chassis of the T-72 main battle tank. The TZM reloading vehicle was built on the chassis of a KrAZ-255B cross-country truck and equipped with a crane for loading/unloading of the launcher.

In 2001, the improved TOS-1A system entered service. The improved system's range has been extended to 6 kilometers and its ballistic computer has been upgraded.

The nickname Buratino matches the name of the hero of a Russian version of a Pinocchio-style tale (by Alexey Tolstoy), because of the big "nose" of the launcher.

Type Multiple rocket launcher
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1988–present
Used by Soviet Union, Russian Federation
Wars Soviet-Afghan War, Second Chechen War, 2014 Iraq conflict
Production history
Designer Omsk Transmash Design Bureau
Designed 1988
Produced 1988–present
Variants TOS-1A
Specifications
Weight 45.3 t (100,000 lb)
Length 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)
Width 3.6 m (11 ft 10 in)
Height 2.22 m (7 ft 3 in)
Crew 3
Caliber 220 mm (8.7 in)
Rate of fire 30 rounds/15 s
Effective firing range 500–3,500m (TOS-1)
6,000m (TOS-1A)
Engine V-84 Diesel
840 hp (630 kW)
Operational
range
550 km (340 mi)
Speed 60 km/h (37 mph)

End notes